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The Brahmaputra Board, a statutory body was set up under an Act of Parliament called the Brahmaputra Board Act, (Act 46 of 1980) under the Ministry of Irrigation (Now renamed as Ministry of Water Resources). The jurisdiction of the Board includes both the Brahmaputra and Barak Valley and covers all the States of the North Eastern Region, Sikkim and part of West Bengal falling under Brahmaputra basin. The Board consists of 21 Members ( 4 full time Members and 17 part time Members), representing seven states of the North Eastern Region, North Eastern Council, concerned Ministries – Ministry of Water Resources, Agriculture, Finance, Power & Surface Transport – and Departments of the Government of India – Central Water Commission, Geological Survey of India, India Meteorological Department and the Central Electricity Authority.

Since creation of Ministry of Development of North Eastern Region (DoNER) and inclusion of Sikkim and part of West Bengal within the jurisdiction of Brahmaputra Board, a representative of DoNER, the Secretary, Irrigation & Flood Control Department(I&FCD), Sikkim, the Secretary, Irrigation & Waterways (I&W) Department, West Bengal, the Chief Engineer, Brahmaputra & Barak Basin (B&BB),Central Water Commission, Shillong and Adviser, North East (NE), Planning Commission are invited as Special Invitees in Board meetings.

The Board started functioning with its Headquarters at Guwahati from 11th January 1982. As per sub-section (2) of section (3) of the Brahmaputra Board Rules, 1981, Board has established a Liaison Office at New Delhi.